4th Benchmark Study Guide


4th Benchmark Study Guide

There are 35 questions on this test.  Some questions cannot be covered in a study guide.

Remember, the end of the year test is around the corner!


1.  What are 2 ways that humans have a negative impact on the environment?


Burning fossil fuels


2.  What are 2 ways that humans have a positive impact on the environment?


Car pool

Water conservation


3. When humans build houses, shopping centers and buildings, what happens to the environment?

Habitats destroyed

Increased pollution

Killing of plants and animals


4.  How do fertilizers harm water ways?

E Coli

Extra nutrients build up = Eutrophication


5.  The Appomattox and James rivers flow into what body of water?

Chesapeake Bay


6.  What does it mean when all of the animals of one species are no longer on the planet?



7.  Who came up with natural selection and the theory of evolution?

Charles Darwin


8.  Adaptations are needed for organisms to survive in its environment.  Examples of these could be fur color, sharp claws and blubber.


9.  Mistakes that occur during a DNA sequence are called mutations.


10.  When scientists find that the bone structures of different animals are similar, what do they conclude? They come from a common ancestor


11.  The changing of an organism over time is evolution


12.  Making a time line and a record of all the fossils is called the fossil record.




13.  What are ways in which organisms can become geographically isolated?






14.  What three things aid in a species evolution?


Natural selection



15. Who is considered to be the “Father of Genetics”?

Gregor Mendel


16. What shape is the DNA molecule?

Double Helix


17.  Which scientists developed the first realistic model of the DNA molecule?

Watson and Crick


18.  DNA and the genetic material of Eukaryotes is found in what organelle?



19.  What are the 3 main components of DNA?


Nitrogenous bases



20.  Different forms of a gene are called alleles.


21.  There are 46 chromosomes in a human, which means there are 23 pairs and 23 chromosomes in each sex cell.


22.  An organism’s physical appearance is considered to be its genotype or phenotype.  (Circle one)


23.  How are genotypes represented?

By letters of the alphabet


24.  The dominant will always mask (cover) the weaker/recessive trait if it is present. 


25.  Having 2 identical alleles for a trait means you are a purebred or homozygous.


26.  Having 2 different alleles for a trait means you are a hybrid or heterozygous.