Answers to the2nd Benchmark Study Guide 2016-2017

2nd Benchmark Study Guide

1.  Who was the 1st person to develop a classification system for living organisms?


2.  Who developed the 3 Domain System?

            Carl Woese

3.  What is the difference in organisms to place them in different domains?

            Chemical differences especially in ribosomal RNA

4.  Why is a mule not a species?

            Because it cannot mate with another mule and create offspring

5.  What are four requirements for animals to be in the same species?        

  1. Similar looking                                                     3. Produce offspring (babies)

  2.  Can breed under normal conditions             4.  Offspring can have offspring


6.  A(n) __dependent______ responds to changes in the _independent_________________ variable.


7. The variable you (the scientist) changes on purpose is the _independent________________________ variable.


8.   The independent variable is put on the __X_____ axis and that is the one that goes from left____________ to _right______________.


9.  The dependent variable is put on the __Y_____ axis and that is the one that goes from _top___________      to __bottom_____________.


10.  The _control________________ is used to compare things to in an experiment.


11.  In all experiments all variables should remain _constant___________ except for the independent variable.


12.  DRY/MIX stands for- dependent/responding variable goes on the y axis and manipulated/independent variable goes on the x axis

13.  Put these in order from smallest to largest:  tissue, organ system, cell, organ

       cell     -->        tissue            -->       organ             -->      organ system


14.  A group of cells create _tissues________ and the _____tissues___________ have the same function.

15.  A group of _tissues____________ create organs and organs have the same function.

16.  A group of _organs___________ create an _ organ_______________ system.

17.  Cells all the way up to organ systems create the most complex unit which is a(n) organism_____.

18.  The prefix uni means _1_____ and the prefix bi means ___2_____.

19.  Define prokaryote- A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and some other cell structures

20.  Define eukaryote-An organism whose cells contain a nucleus

21.  The biggest difference between a prokaryote and a eukaryote is the lack or presence of a membrane bound _nucleus_________________.

22.  What are the 3 main phases of the cell cycle?

            1. Interphase                        3. Cytokinesis

            2.  Mitosis

23.  What are the 4 stages of mitosis?

            1.  Prophase                                      3. Anaphase

            2.  Metaphase                                  4. Telophase

24.  What process creates 2 identical daughter cells that are identical to the parent cell?


25.  What process creates body cells?  Mitosis or Meiosis?

26.  Humans have _46___ chromosomes.  You get _23___ from the sperm and _23__ from the egg.

27.  Meiosis produces what type of cell?  body or sex?

28.  The cell prepares for division in which phase? Interphase

29.  In diffusion materials move from the __higher________ concentration to the __lower________             concentration.

30.  _Osmosis_______________________ is the diffusion of water across a cell membrane.

31.  True or False?

            Cell Membranes are the control center of the cell.  False

            Cell Membranes release energy for the cell.  False

            Cell Membranes block substances from exiting the cell.  False

            Cell Membranes are selectively permeable. True

32. Is osmosis passive or active transport?  Passive      

Osmosis deals with the movement of ___water_______________.


You will have charts and graphs to look at on this test.  Please look carefully at each diagram, read the question carefully and decide what it is that the question is asking.