Interactive Note taking-Ecosystems movement of Energy

Interactive Note Taking

Ecosystems: The Movement of energy

 

1. Ecosystems are important systems that scientists recognize.

 

2. *ecosystems-a defined community of living organisms and physical environment

*biotic-living ex: animals and plants

*abiotic-nonliving ex: water, sunlight, oxygen, temp., soil

 

3. Interactions between the biotic and abiotic factors produce a flow of energy

 

4. *The flow of energy in ecosystems can be tracked thru food chains

*Food chains show how energy passes from 1 living thing to another

*Dry habitats-desert, grasslands, forests

Water habitats-ponds, marshes, swamps, rivers, oceans

 

5. *energy enters through photosynthesis

*photosynthesis-light energy converted to chemical energy

*chemical energy stored as glucose

*food chains start with producers

*producers make their own food

*examples of producers: trees, bushes, grasses, ferns

 

6. *consumers get their energy by consuming other organisms (producers or other consumers)

*energy is passed when one organism eats and then it is eaten by another organism

 

7. * Consumers are classified by what they eat

*1st order/level consumers eat producers (herbivores)

*2nd order/level consumers eat 1st level consumers (omnivores and carnivores)

*3rd order/level consumers eat 2nd level consumers (mainly carnivores)

***There can be even higher level consumers depending on how large the food chain is and how biodiverse the food web is

 

8. * As energy goes through food chains it gradually gets used up

*Decomposers consume waste products & bodies of dead organisms

*Decomposers return nutrients to soil, air, and water

*examples of decomposers: bacteria, fungi & worms

 

 

9. *Energy flows from one organism to another in a food chain

p --> 1st --> 2nd --> 3rd <--decomposers

 

10. * Interactions in ecosystems can be complex when energy can take many paths

*When food chains overlap they form food webs

*Many organisms are connected to one another by the food that they eat & what eats them

 

11. Many living organisms are connected to one another by the foods they eat & what eats them

 

12. In a food web, organisms may play more than one role. 13. * As energy moves from organism to organism the amount of available energy decreases

*When an organism consumes another it uses most energy to carry out life processes and only leaves a small amount available for the next organism in the food web.

*Energy decreases as you move up the food web from producer to consumer

* Energy pyramids are used to show amount of energy available at each feeding level.

 

13. * As energy moves from organism to organism the amount of available energy decreases

*When an organism consumes another it uses most energy to carry out life processes and only leaves a small amount available for the next organism in the food web.

*Energy decreases as you move up the food web from producer to consumer

* Energy pyramids are used to show amount of energy available at each feeding level.

 

14. *Energy is measured in kilocalories (kcal)

*There are more kcal at the producer level.

 

15. *1st trophic energy levels support 1st level consumers

*They use 90% of energy leaving 10% to be passed on

 

16. *2nd trophic energy levels support 2nd level consumers.

* 2nd level consumers use 90% of energy leaving 10% to be passed on.

 

17. *3rd trophic energy levels support 3rd level consumers

  *3rd level consumers use 90% of energy leaving 10% to be passed on