Post Test Study Guide with Answers


1.  Metric Unit for

            Mass: gram

            Volume: liter

            Length/Distance: meters


2. In an experiment all variables should be kept the same except for the independent variable, the one you are testing/changing on purpose.


3.  The dependent variable is the variable that responds to changes in the independent variable.


4. Which variable is on the x axis? Manipulated/independent variable Y axis? Dependent/responding variable


5. Plant cells are this shape rectangular and animal cells are round


6. Which organelle is the

      Brain: nucleus

      Storage unit: vacuole

      Selectively permeable one: cell membrane

      Protein maker: ribosome


7. What two things help you to know that the cell you are looking at under a microscope is a plant cell? Cell wall, chloroplasts, chlorophyll


8.  List the 3 parts of the cell theory-

      1. all cells come from cells

      2. all living things are made of cells

      3. cells are the smallest and basic unit of life


9.  Which cell division results in the production of sex cells? meiosis


10. Which cell division produces daughter cells identical to the mother cell? mitosis


11. Define binary fission- A form of asexual reproduction in which one cell divides to form 2 identical cells


12.  Put in order from smallest to largest. Tissue, system, cell, organ

            cell                 à        tissue             à        organ                        à organ system


13. The most basic unit of life is the- cell


14.  List 4 organ systems found in the human body:

      1.   skeletal                     2. Digestive              3.  Nervous

      4.   respiratory                5. Circulatory          6. Integumentary

15.  Which process creates oxygen and sugar? photosynthesis


16. Which process uses oxygen to break down food molecules to release energy? Cellular respiration


17. Define diffusion and illustrate-


      Definition- The process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration





18.  Who came up with the 3 Domain system?  Carl Woese


19.  What are the 6 kingdoms? Animal, plant, protist, fungus, Archaebacteria, Eubacteria


20.  A eukaryote is an organism that has a nucleus and a prokaryote is an organism that doesn’t have a nucleus.


21.  Which two kingdoms are prokaryotic?

      1.   Archaebacteria                             2. Eubacteria


22.  Which 4 kingdoms are eukaryotic?

      1.   Animal                                                          2. protist

      3.   plant                                                              4. fungus


23.  Invertebrates do not have a(n) backbone.

        List 3 examples of invertebrates: 

        1. Echinoderms           2. Annelids              3. Arthropods          4. Cnidarians


24.  Angiosperms produce seeds and flowers while gymnosperms produce cones.


25.  When writing a binomial nomenclature (scientific name), use genus and species-

      1. Which word comes first? Genus

      2. Which word is in italics? All of them

      3. Which word is capitalized? Genus, the 1st word


26.  If two organisms are similar looking and can reproduce, then they are of the same-



27.  What is the green pigment inside the chloroplast that helps trap light energy called?



28.  The raw materials of photosynthesis are- (needed in order to perform photosynthesis)

      1. carbon dioxide                                            2. water



29. The products of photosynthesis are- (what are made)

      1. oxygen                       2. Sugar


30.  Photosynthesis is the foundation of all food webs and energy pyramids. (A process-not organism)


31. What process takes free nitrogen gas and changes it to useable forms?

      Nitrogen fixation


32.  Why should there be regulations on harvesting trees, fish, or any living organism?

        Because if we use up more than is replaced, they will be gone.  We need the adults to keep reproducing. We need to put sustainable yield into place.


33.  Food webs and energy pyramids illustrate the transfer of energy from one level to another.  Arrows are used to show the movement/transfer of energy.


34.  In an energy pyramid, which level has the most energy? The bottom level/producers



36.  Why do populations establish social order?

So jobs and resources are shared


37.  What is the difference between a population and a community?

Population has just one species of animals and a community is a variety of all species together.


38. What are some examples of how animals establish their territory?

            1. Spraying scent (cats/dogs)                          2. Aggression/fighting

            3. bears scratching trees                                                4. Making noises


39. When 2 different species have the same or similar prey, what happens between those             two species? They compete for the resources


40.  A niche is an organism’s role or job in an ecosystem.


41.  Mutualism, Commensalism, or Parasitism?

            win/win mutualism                                    win/no effect commensalism

            win/lose parasitism


42.  A large region that has similar climates, plants and animals make up a- biome


43. What are some adaptations of coniferous trees? Waxy needles, triangle shape to tree


44. Phototropism is when a plant grows toward the light.


45.  When organisms lower their metabolism to conserve energy and resources in harsh         conditions they go- dormant, plants especially go dormant, animals hibernate


46. If there are no predator animals, what will happen to the prey? They will increase in population


47.  When there are too many nutrients in the water, causing eutrophication, what gas will         leave the water? oxygen


48. Why do some exotic or invasive species take over? Because they do not have a natural predator


49.  Humans can have a negative impact on ecosystems and habitat size how?

            Destruction of habitats                clearing land                      cutting down trees

            Littering                                             burning fossil fuels                        using to much fertizer



50. If we reduce, reuse, and recycle we are taking steps to Conserve our resources.


51. Our hereditary material that carries all of our genetic makeup and controls our activities      is our  DNA


52.  Segments on our DNA that code for a trait are- gene


53. Genotypes are our genetic makeup and represented by letters of the alphabet.


54. Phenotypes describe physical characteristics.


55.  BB is a purebred/homozygous, Bb is a hybrid/heterozygous  bb is a purebred/homozygous


56.  The dominant allele always takes over if it is present.


57. True or false?  Hair color, dimples, eye color, hair type, and height are all inherited traits? True


58. Define genetic engineering- The transfer of a gene from the DNA of one organism into another organism in order to produce an organism with desired traits


59. Gradual changes of populations over time is called- evolution


60. A characteristic that helps an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment is called- adaptation


60.  Natural selection is when organisms that are better adapted to their environment will survive.


61. The “Father of Genetics” is? Gregor Mendel


62.  Preserved remains of organisms that lived in the past are called- fossils


63.  Slight differences that can be observed in the same species are called- variations


64.  Review all BIOME notes




Add this:


What does consistent mean?  Kept the same

How are biomes defined?  Similar climates and organisms-organisms are adapted to live in that climate and conditions